Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve that affects approximately 60 million people globally. It is the second most common cause of blindness, leaving an estimated 7.5 million people blind. In India it affects 11 million people, of which 1.5 million are blind.
The word glaucoma came from ancient Greek, meaning clouded or blue-green hue, most likely describing a person with swollen cornea or who was rapidly developing a cataract, both of which may be caused by chronic elevated pressure inside the eye.
Glaucoma is a sight threatening and often symptomless diseases and has a strong family history.
Glaucoma is a condition of the eye where the optic nerve is damaged. The optic nerve carries images to the brain, which are then perceived as vision. Minute nerve fibres from various parts of the retina join to form the optic nerve. Glaucoma results when the pressure within the eye is high enough to be detrimental to the normal functioning of these nerve fibres, some of which stop functioning. Non-functional nerve fibres result in a loss of retinal function in the area from where they originate, leading to defects in the field of vision.
The disease is called the 'sneak thief of sight' because it is painless, without symptoms and irreversible. Therefore, the person with glaucoma is usually unaware of it until much loss of vision has occurred. In fact, half of those suffering damage from glaucoma do not know it. Currently, damage from glaucoma cannot be reversed and if the entire nerve is damaged, blindness results. Early detection and regular treatment are the keys to preventing optic nerve damage and blindness from glaucoma.
At the Diva Eye Institute, all patients are screened for glaucoma. Patients suffering from glaucoma are regularly tested using various instruments and parameters. The Humphrey computerised visual field analyser helps track prevention of further damage to the vision. Special Blue-on-yellow software [SWAP] allows early diagnosis of glaucoma suspects, especially those with a strong family history. Offering a full range of diagnostics, including the Humphrey computerized visual field analyzer, we also offer a Complete GLAUCOMA Assessment which helps to prevent further damage to vision and early detection of Glaucoma. Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, especially for older people. However visual loss is preventable or stabilized with early diagnosis and treatment.
Most common type of glaucoma; damages vision gradually and painlessly. The pressure is rarely high enough to be symptomatic.
An acute attack of glaucoma caused by sudden blockage of the drainage channels leading to a sharp rise in pressure within the eye.
- Blurred vision
- Severe eye pain, nausea and vomiting
- Rainbow haloes around lights
- Pain around your eyes after watching TV or after leaving a dark theatre
- Red eyes
- Lens induced Glaucoma
- Inflammatory Glaucoma
- Pigmentary Glaucoma
- Neovascular Glaucoma
- Glaucoma Associated with irido-corneal endothelial syndrome
- Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma
- Traumatic Glaucoma
- Steroid - induced Glaucoma
- Glaucoma in aphakia
- Glaucoma associated with Intra Ocuar Tumours
- Primary Congenital Glaucoma
- Developmental Glaucoma
The complete and painless examination includes among other tests:
- Tonometry - Measurement of the intraocular pressure [tension]
- Gonioscopy - Inspection of the drainage angle of the eye,whether angle is open or closed
- Ophthalmoscopy - Evaluation of optic nerve damage
- Perimetry - Testing the visual field of each eye
- Heidelberg's Retinal tomography 3-Test to detect optic nerve head and retinal nerve fibre layers.
- Pachymetry - To measure actual thickness of cornea.
- Applanation tonometry-A ccurately measures Intra Ocular Pressure.
- OCT - Optical Coherence Tomography
Eye dropsWhen taken regularly and continuously as prescribed, they control the eye pressure either by slowing the formation of aqueous fluid within the eye or by increasing the flow at the drainage area. The proper technique of using your medication is a key to successful treatment. Our glaucoma clinic doctor or assistant will teach you the technique.
TabletsThese are sometimes combined with the eye drops to decrease higher levels of eye pressure. They are occasionally known to cause tingling of fingers and toes, bowel irregularities, and in the very long term, kidney stones.
Why a drug causes side effects in some persons and not others is not fully understood.
By visiting the clinic regularly will help keep a check on what treatment suits you and its results.
Lasers are usually used in one of three ways:
- OAG - In open-angle glaucoma the draining angle itself is enlarged to control eye pressure.(Laser Trabeculoplasty)
- ACG - In angle-closure glaucoma the laser creates a hole in the iris to open up and improve the flow of aqueous fluid to the drain.(YAG Laser iridotomy)
- In painful late-stage glaucoma medication or surgery do not control the pressure. The laser closes some aqueous fluid-producing areas in the eye and lowers the eye pressure. Red Diode laser cycle photo angulation destraction.
- Primary Open Angle Glaucoma not controlled with medicine.
- Primary Angle closure glaucoma with peripheral anterior synechiae.
- Congenital and developmental glaucoma where trabeculotomy and goniotomy fails
- When patient compliance is poor.
- Secondary Glaucoma
Surgery is recommended when your doctor feels that it is safer to operate than to allow optic nerve damage to continue
Commonly used Glaucoma Valves are:
- Ahmed Glaucoma Valve-
- Krupin-Denver Glaucoma valve
Cyclodestructive procedure commonly used are:
- Nd:Yag laser cyclodestruction
- Diode laser cyclophotocoagulation
- The patient receives specialized care provided by our glaucoma specialists
- Glaucoma needs regular follow-up since the condition can cause asymptomatic and irreversible loss of vision if poorly treated or neglected
- The effect of your treatment on the eye pressure may not always be constant and needs to be regularly measured by our glaucoma specialist.
- At the clinic we record images and maintain records of your eye condition for comparison on following visits.